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Sunday, 17 February 2013

Cancer Types

Source(google.com.pk)
Cancer Types Biography
Oncologist Siddhartha Mukherjee was treating one of his patients, a woman with advanced abdominal cancer who had relapsed multiple times, when she asked him what seemed like a simple question.

"She said, 'I'm willing to go on, but before I go on, I need to know what it is I'm battling,' " Mukherjee tells NPR's Terry Gross.

But, as Mukherjee explains, describing his patient's illness wasn't so simple. Defining cancer, he says, is something doctors and scientists have been struggling to do since the disease's first documented appearance thousands of years ago.
"Cancer is not just a dividing cell," he says. "It's a complex disease: It invades, it metastasizes, it evades the immune system. So there are many, many other stages of [defining] cancer which are still in their infancy."

Mukherjee's new book, The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer, grew out of his desire to better understand the disease he treats, through examining the way cancer has been described and treated throughout history. He chronicles the ways therapies evolved, particularly in the 20th century, as more treatment options became available and scientists worked to understand the underlying genetic mutations that caused the disease.

"If there's a seminal discovery in oncology in the last 20 years, it's that idea that cancer genes are often mutated versions of normal genes," he says. "And the arrival of that moment really sent a chill down the spine of cancer biologists. Because here we were hoping that cancer would turn out to be some kind of exogenous event — a virus or something that could then be removed from our environment and our bodies and we could be rid of it — but [it turns out] that cancer genes are sitting inside of each and every one of our chromosomes, waiting to be corrupted or activated."

Enlarge image
Siddhartha Mukherjee is a staff oncologist at Columbia University Medical Center.

Deborah Feingold via Scribner
As the genetic understanding of cancer evolves, Mukherjee says, oncologists will be able to integrate that knowledge to develop more targeted treatment options — particularly as they find commonalities between different types of cancer.

"A breast cancer might turn out to have a close resemblance to a gastric cancer," he says. "And this kind of reorganization of cancer in terms of its internal genetic anatomy has really changed the way we treat and approach cancer in general."

Dr. Siddhartha Mukherjee is an assistant professor of medicine at Columbia University and a staff cancer oncologist at Columbia University Medical Center. His articles have been published in Nature, The New England Journal



Friday, 15 February 2013

About Brain Cancer

Source(google.com.pk)
About Brain Cancer
Brain tumors are not rare.  Each year more than a 100,000 Americans will be diagnosed with a primary brain tumor or metastatic (secondary) brain tumor. Being diagnosed with a brain tumor can cause shock, fear, and confusion. For most people, having a brain tumor raises a lot of questions about what to do, where to go, and how to find the most comprehensive care. Dr. Sperduto and his expert team are here to help. From diagnosis to treatment, our experienced, concerned team of experts specializes in the comprehensive care of brain tumors.
The brain is the most important organ in the body.  It controls the five senses as well as the ability to speak and move.  In this section you will find a brief introduction to: brain anatomy,brain tumors, the diagnosis of brain tumors, and a description of the different types of brain tumors.
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BRAIN ANATOMY 
Central Nervous System (CNS): Your CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord.
Brain Stem: Connects your brain with your spinal cord and controls your breathing and heart rate.
Cerebral Cortex: Involved in your thinking, learning and speaking activities.

Cerebellum: Like a mini-brain within your brain, your cerebellum allows you to carry out skilled, complicated movements, including balance. 

Cerebrospinal fluid: Protects your brain and spinal cord by acting as a shock absorber.

Cerebrum: The largest and uppermost portion of your brain. It consists of the right and left hemispheres, which control thoughts and conscious action. 

Corpus Callosum: Connects the two hemispheres of your brain and allows both sides to communicate. For example, when your right hand holds an object, your left hand knows it. 

Hypothalamus: Regulates areas for thirst, hunger, body temperature, water balance, blood pressure and links the nervous system to the endocrine system.

Thalamus: Egg-shaped area that helps you process and recognize information about touch, pain, temperature and pressure on your skin. 
About Brain Cancer
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About Brain Cancer

Treatment Of Brain Cancer

Source(google.com.pk)
Treatment Of Brain Cancer 
Treatment methods for brain cancer:
Curing the brain cancer depends on the extension level of the tumor and the place it’s localized. If it’s possible, some brain tumors are treated in a surgical manner, the tumor is removed and the curing is complete. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy prescribed after the operation help to totally destroy the cancerous cells that remained isolated.

In case of brain tumors that have been affecting in a profound manner some areas of the brain, the treatment consists in chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which eliminate the tumor through laser, because the extirpation of the tumor on a surgical method can provoke serious cerebral lesions. In this case the curing is not assured; it can only slow the developing of the cancerous cells, prolonging the life of the sick person.

Meningiomas are forms of tumors that form from the membrane which covers and protects the brain, are benign and can be surgically extirpated. Glioblastomas is another type of tumors, malign, that are born right from the brain tissue and cannot be operated. In serious situations when the curing is impossible, the doctors will try to create a state of comfort for the patient and keep the neurological functions alive, administrating drugs (anticonvulsants, analgesics, corticosteroids) which have the role of reducing the edema, control and ameliorate the pains. The therapies for physical rehabilitation are indicated for the patients for whom the tumors provoked residual brain lesions.

There are also accepted a series of alternative therapies which ameliorate a bit the symptoms of this disease: hydrotherapy, yoga, therapeutic touch, meditation, biofeedback, some methods of reflecting, etc.

The researchers from the National Health Institution are studying a new type of therapy, through which they wish to destroy the cancerous cells at the brain level by modifying their genetics. In this way, through foreign genes, if the result of the tests will be positive, they will realize the most efficient method of treating the brain cancer.

The innovation of this idea consists in the fact that the cancerous cells will be vulnerable for a drug that leads to their destruction, but leaves the healthy cells unaffected and intact. By testing this therapy for humans, for 5 from 8 patients the cancerous tumor has been significantly reduced. Testing this therapy on rats, 11 from 14 animals got entirely rid of the tumors. Nowadays there are necessary many supplementary tests, but the new genetic therapy is very promising on the future market
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Treatment Of Brain Cancer

Brain Cancer Treatment

Source(google.com.pk)
Brain Cancer Treatment
Brain tumors can be malignant (cancerous) or benign (non cancerous). Treatment options for brain tumor should be individualized based on age, health and size, location and type of the tumor. Treatment for brain cancer is complex that it involves cumulative effect of team of doctors including neurosurgeons, oncologists, and radiation oncologists apart from primary health care providers.

Various treatment options available for brain cancer are,
Surgery: Surgical removal is the usual first treatment for most brain tumors. Many tumors except some at the skull base can be successfully removed. Any person undergoing brain surgery may suffer from epileptic seizures and medication is prescribed to minimize or eliminate the occurrence of seizures.

Stereotactic radiosurgery is a new technique to destory brain tumor using high energy radiation without opening the skull. There are various types of stereotactic radiosurgeryand the advantages of stereotactic radiosurgery is that it has fewer complications with a shorter recovery time.
Radiation: It is a localized therapy to selectively destroy tumor cells. It may be used for people who can not undergo surgery. In some cases it is used after surgery to kill any tumor cells that may remain. Radiation can be given externally or internally.

External radiation uses a high-energy beam of radiation that travels through the skin, the skull, healthy brain tissue, and other tissues to get to the tumor. The process is repeated for a total of 10-30 treatments depending on the type of tumor.
Internal or implant radiation uses a tiny radioactive capsule that is placed inside the tumor itself.
Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy uses drugs to treat tumor. It is often used in young children instead of radiation, as radiation may affect the developing brain. The toxicity and many side effects of the drugs holds back this treatment option in comparison to surgery and radiation therapy
Clinical Trials: Clinical trials are another treatment option for brain cancer, as new therapies are being developed all the time. Clinical trials offer new therapies that may be more effective than the existing one. Many people with cancer are eligible for clinical trials. Check out list of clinical trials for brain tumor currently recruiting here.

A brain tumor or treatment can lead to other health problems and you need to receive supportive care to prevent these hurdles.
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Cancer Symptoms

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Cancer Symptoms
Since prevention is one of the most important cancer-fighting tools, it is important that cancer be detected as early as possible before it spreads.
Telltale Signs of Cancer include:  A lump or thickening in the breast or testicles; a change in a wart or mole; a skin sore or a persistent sore throat that doesn't heal; a change in bowel or bladder habits; a persistent cough or coughing blood; constant indigestion or trouble swallowing; unusual bleeding or vaginal discharge; and chronic fatigue.

If you notice any of these symptoms, you should see a physician for testing.  We also have a web page that lists some of the tests that are available to detect cancer.

The following are symptoms that may occur in specific types of cancers:

Bladder cancer: Blood in the urine, pain or burning upon urination; frequent urination; or cloudy urine

Bone cancer: Pain in the bone or swelling around the affected site; fractures in bones; weakness, fatigue; weight loss; repeated infections; nausea, vomiting, constipation, problems with urination; weakness or numbness in the legs; bumps and bruises that persist

Brain cancer: Dizziness; drowsiness; abnormal eye movements or changes in vision; weakness, loss of feeling in arms or legs or difficulties in walking; fits or convulsions; changes in personality, memory or speech; headaches that tend to be worse in the morning and ease during the day, that may be accompanied by nausea or vomiting

Breast cancer: A lump or thickening of the breast; discharge from the nipple; change in the skin of the breast; a feeling of heat; or enlarged lymph nodes under the arm

Colorectal cancer: Rectal bleeding (red blood in stools or black stools); abdominal cramps; constipation alternating with diarrhea; weight loss; loss of appetite; weakness; pallid complexion

Kidney cancer: Blood in urine; dull ache or pain in the back or side; lump in kidney area, sometimes accompanied by high blood pressure or abnormality in red blood cell count

Leukemia: Weakness, paleness; fever and flu-like symptoms; bruising and prolonged bleeding; enlarged lymph nodes, spleen, liver; pain in bones and joints; frequent infections; weight loss; night sweats

Lung cancer: Wheezing, persistent cough for months; blood-streaked sputum; persistent ache in chest; congestion in lungs; enlarged lymph nodes in the neck

Melanoma: Change in mole or other bump on the skin, including bleeding or change in size, shape, color, or texture

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Painless swelling in the lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, or groin; persistent fever; feeling of fatigue; unexplained weight loss; itchy skin and rashes; small lumps in skin; bone pain; swelling in the abdomen; liver or spleen enlargement

Oral cancer:  A lump in the mouth, ulceration of the lip, tongue or inside of the mouth that does not heal within a couple of weeks; dentures that no longer fit well; oral pain, bleeding, foul breath, loose teeth, and changes in speech

Ovarian cancer: Abdominal swelling; in rare cases, abnormal vaginal bleeding; digestive discomfort

Pancreatic cancer: Upper abdominal pain and unexplained weight loss; pain near the center of the back; intolerance of fatty foods; yellowing of the skin; abdominal masses; enlargement of liver and spleen

Prostate cancer: Urination difficulties due to blockage of the urethra; bladder retains urine, creating frequent feelings of urgency to urinate, especially at night; bladder not emptying completely; burning or painful urination; bloody urine; tenderness over the bladder; and dull ache in the pelvis or back

Stomach cancer: Indigestion or heartburn; discomfort or pain in the abdomen; nausea and vomiting; diarrhea or constipation; bloating after meals; loss of appetite; weakness and fatigue; bleeding - vomiting blood or blood in the stool

Uterine cancer: Abnormal vaginal bleeding, a watery bloody discharge in postmenopausal women; a painful urination; pain during intercourse; pain in pelvic area














Tuesday, 12 February 2013

Dialysis


Source(google.com.pk)
Dialysis Biography

dialysis (dĪălˈĭsĭs) [key], in chemistry, transfer of solute (dissolved solids) across a semipermeable membrane. Strictly speaking, dialysis refers only to the transfer of the solute; transfer of the solvent is called osmosis. Dialysis is frequently used to separate different components of a solution. For example, a solution of starch and sodium chloride in water can be separated by placing the mixture in a vessel on one side of a semipermeable membrane and placing pure water on the other side. The smaller particles of sodium chloride (which dissolve in water to form sodium and chloride ions) will diffuse across the membrane; diffusion of the much larger starch particles (which are not truly in solution but are in colloidal suspension) is hindered and may be completely prevented. By continuously or periodically replacing the solvent with fresh solvent, almost all of the sodium chloride can be removed. The method was originated by Thomas Graham, who termed the substance that remained within the membrane a colloid and the substance that diffused a crystalloid.
An extension of the method makes possible the separation of mixed colloids by the use of a semipermeable membrane (usually synthetic) of known selectivity, i.e., one that will permit the diffusion of one colloid and hinder the diffusion of others. Mixed macromolecules, such as proteins, may be similarly separated. By the use of graded semipermeable membranes chosen to allow successively smaller molecules to pass, mixtures can be separated into components of graded ranges of molecular weight.

Monday, 11 February 2013

Kidney Transplantation

Source(google.com.pk)
Kidney Transplantation Biography
An organ transplant is the transferring of an organ from the donor's body to the patient’s body in place of receivers absent or damaged organ to activate it again. There are three types of grafting process which are applied during organ transplantation. If the organs or tissues are taken from the same patient’s body to which it will be transplanted, this grafting process is called auto graft. If the organs or tissues are taken from the donor's body into the patient’s body within same species, this grafting process is called allograft. If the donor is selected from different species of the receiver, this grafting process is called Xenograft.
The donor may be living or not in allograft process. If the donor is not living then it has a specific time limit before damaging the transplanting organs or tissues. Organs which are usually transplanted widely are liver, pancreas, kidneys, lungs, intestines etc. Tissues are collected from special parts of the body such as skins, veins, bones, cornea, and heart valves etc. kidney is the most usual organ which is transplanted for worldwide purposes.

In case of living donor, brain must be dead. For that reason parts of the brain which regulate breathing and heart beat are collapsed during transplantation. Breathing and heartbeat is controlled by artificial system for that time. But that is a tough job for the doctors. Because every patient does not have same capability to maintain breathing by artificial means. They go through the path of death. So it must be ensured that weak donor's are rejected as much as possible.

Tissues are collected from the donor within 24 hours through temporary cessation of their cardiac system. But the collected tissues from any organ except corneal tissues can be preserved or stored for at least five years. It is obviously good news for everybody. Those preserved tissues are found from the organ bank when we need them. Government has its strict regulation for the safety of proper organ transplantation. Otherwise, communicable diseases are spread out over generation to generation.

Most of the times living donor's are relatives or near and dear ones of the patient. Emotional matters are very much effective over the risks of the donor’s life. Psychologically they are strong in those cases. Donors have no concern about their own life but they want to save the life of their nearest people. So doctors should be concerned about those cases that they must not accept that types of donors which are not physically fit. Paired exchange is done by stereotyping for the living donor.

It is a compatibility test procedure between donor and receiver. Cross matching and blood incompatibility are identified by this technology. Sometimes donors are inspired to give their organs or body parts by attractive amount of money. This is unethical and unexpected matter for modern science. Transplantation medicine is a gainsaying area of modern science. Transplant rejection may occur in the patient’s body. Sometimes the immune system of the patient’s body works against transplanting body parts. In this case the transplanting organ is removed from the patient immediately. Organ transplantation brings happiness to many people by transplanted getting a new organ and a new life.

Renal Insufficiency

Source(google.com.pk)
Renal Insufficiency Biography
Symptoms and causes of kidney failure
The symptoms of kidney failure or kidney problems appears slowly over a long period of time, so they can easily go unnoticed or thought to be normal stress. Knowing the symptoms of kidney failure can help you recognize the problems and then get proper treatment. If you experience any symptom of kidney failure, you should at once discuss it with your doctor and not ignore it. The symptoms of kidney failure or kidney problems are swelling, weakness, fatigue, feeling cold, shortness of breath, changes in urination, rash or itchy dry skin, restless, cramped or sore legs, metallic taste in the mouth, loss of taste and nausea.
When kidneys are failing, excess fluids build up in the body and this leads to a condition in which the hands, ankles, feet, face swells up. This fluid can also collect in the lungs, which then causes shortness of breath. Kidney failure can slow down the production of a hormone which leads to a low red blood cell count. This can cause anemia, which makes you feel tired very quickly. Your kidneys make urine, so kidney failure can cause the urine to change. Urination problems include bloody urine, more or less urine than usual, a change in how often you urinate, or a pressure or difficulty in urinating. When kidneys fail, the buildup of waste in your blood can cause rashes or severe itching. Buildup of waste in the blood can make your food taste different or cause bad breath, which leads to loss of appetite, vomiting, nausea and weight loss.

There are many causes of kidney failure. Kidney failure mostly occurs because of acute situations or chronic problems. Diabetes and high blood pressure are the two common causes of kidney failure. A family history of kidney problem can also increase your risk of developing the disease. Diabetes damages the blood vessels in your body and makes it difficult for the kidneys to function properly. High blood pressure if left untreated can exert added force and cause damage to the glomeruli which filters the waste from your blood. Kidney stones are also a cause for kidney failure. Kidney stones are crystallized minerals and other substances that can form on the inner surface of the kidneys and over time become small, hard masses. Most of these conditions that lead to kidney failure occur over a long period of time and can cause damage to both the kidneys. You need to be aware, that even if further deterioration can be stopped, the damage already done is usually permanent. Your doctor can work with you to find the best treatment options that suits your case and needs.

Liver Disease

Source(google.com.pk)
Liver Disease Biography
Viruses are smaller in size to bacteria and can also be described as nano particle stating its small size. Viruses are parasitic in nature as they always depend on a host cell or organism for replication. Viruses are known for its infectious nature, infecting right from bacteria to humans.

Virus grouping: Viruses are divided and grouped into various types using the key factors like morphology (structure), biological role, type of genetic material and mode of multiplication. The unique feature of virus is that their genetic material is covered by a protective layer termed as capsid made up of units of protein encoded by the virus itself. The association of the capsid and the genetic material (nucleocapsid) describes the structure of the virus. The viral structure has an outer envelope made up of lipoproteins and the space between the capsid and the envelope is called as Matrix which acts as a bridge between the inner nucleocapsid and the outer envelope. The matrix region is composed of proteins again.

Viruses are classified based on the type of genetic material present into DNA virus and RNA virus. DNA virus, as the name indicates have DNA as their genetic material and the DNA is either linear or circular and double stranded or single stranded. Based on the length of the genetic material present, these viruses are again divided into big and small DNA viruses. Herpes virus and pox virus are examples of double stranded DNA virus and parvo virus is single stranded DNA virus. The virus with RNA as genetic material are grouped under RNA viruses and the RNA present may be double stranded or single stranded. Also the single stranded RNA virus may have either cationic or anionic strand. Reo virus is an example of double stranded RNA virus and picorna virus is a positive single stranded RNA virus and Rhabdo virus falls under the group of negative single stranded RNA virus.

Viral Life Cycle: Virus is host specific and this nature enables them to bind themselves to the host cell. Once attached it penetrates and enters the host cell environment. The outer envelope is shed inside the host cell and mRNA is synthesized through transcription which is followed by translation into proteins. Following this is the glycosylation process and the replication begins resulting in multiple viral copies, which then assemble and exits the host cell as mature viruses.

Viral Infections: The potential of a virus to cause infection to the host cell is termed as virulence. Viruses infect bacteria, plants, animals and humans causing various reversible and irreversible diseases.
Humans: Eye infection caused by Herpes simplex virus, cytomegalo virus, encephalitis by LCM virus, Rabies virus and the occurrence of common cold is due to para influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus. The Hepatitis virus of different groups A, B, C, D & E in causing hepatitis, a liver disease and Coxsackie B virus is identified in pancreatitis. Infection by rota virus, adeno virus and corona virus causes GI tract related diseases. HIV, Herpes simplex 2 and Human Papilloma virus are the major causative agents for the sexually transmitted diseases.

Plants: Plant viruses have different shapes like icosahedral, rod, filament or isometric. Some of the plant viruses are Tobacco Mosaic virus, cucumber mosaic virus, Lettuce mosaic virus and citrus psorosis virus. The viruses are named based on the type of disease they cause in plants.

Birds and Animals: The H1N1 episode due to the infection of birds by Influenza virus A and the infection of pigs by influenza virus (B or C) spreading swine flu are the classic examples of bird and animal viruses and their transmission to humans.

Bacteria: virus with a potential to infect bacteria is called as a bacteriophage. T4, T5, T7 phages, MS2 phage and Qβ phage are examples of the bacteriophages. The structure of a bactriophage is unique with three regions like icosahedral shape as head with shaft like middle region and tail like structures at the base.

Cancer and virus: Few viruses are detected with their ability to cause cancer in humans. The cancer causing oncogenes were first identified and studied in retrovirus. The human Papilloma virus causes cervical cancer and the chronic liver disease due to the infection by Hepatitis B virus activates the liver cells to become cancerous.

The structure, function and mode of replication enabled scientists to make use of viruses in different field of biological science. The ability of the virus to deliver the genetic material into host made them as suitable vectors in genetic engineering. The association of the virus with the immune system enabled to develop vaccines for various viral diseases. The use of virus in the field of nanotechnology is cited by the use of cowpea mosaic virus as signal amplifiers in DNA microarray technique by the researchers of Naval Research laboratory, Washington, D.C. The different perspective on virus as a tool in cancer therapy and gene therapy will be beneficial. The ability of the virus to infect bacterial cell is used to kill pathogenic bacteria (Phage therapy). Besides all this beneficial applications of virus, the threat lies in the fact that they can be used as bioweapons.

Liver Failure

Source(google.com.pk)
Liver Failure Biography
Liver is a multitasking organ in the body being able to synthesise several plasma proteins, immune factors as well as several metabolising enzymes and factors helping in digestion and excretion within the body. Hence, on liver failure several severe complications are noticed in the body affecting several other organs like kidney, brain, and even causing ultimate death. Although, liver transplantation remains the ultimate solution in case of Acute Liver Failure (ALF) but due to shortage in the availability of donors, other methods to support the liver functions are being devised. Doctors have made progress in the replacement of the different damaged organs within the body with artificial devices when transplantation becomes an issue due to unavailability of the donors or organs. In case of ALF also, Artificial Liver Support Devices (ALSDs) have been developed, which provide a temporary solution between the ALF and liver transplantation or liver regeneration from the donor liver hepatocytes, which have the capacity to regenerate the whole liver and restore its function by continuous proliferation.

ALSDs are based on the idea of removal of toxic substances from the blood. These may be of two types: Non-Biological LSDs and Biological LSDs. The Non-biological LSDs mainly remove the excretory wastes from the body based on the dialysis and filtration principle. It was found that they provide temporary solution and are not much efficient as they are unable to restore other important functions of liver because of which the patients could not survive for long. This led to the idea of development of LSDs, which are biological in nature and could provide long-lasting solution for the survival of the ALF patients. The synthetic, metabolic as well as excretion functions of the liver are being restored largely by the biological LSDs, hence research on bio artificial liver devices is making progress.

The Bio artificial livers are support devices connected to the patients’ plasma circulation outside the body. They are liver cells charged bioreactors, which help in restoring almost all the main functions of the liver. The bioreactors mainly consist of porcine or human hepatocytes, which are parenchymal in nature. However, for the optimum function of the bioreactors, they must contain mixed differentiated cells whereby the liver cells possess 3D configuration. The bioreactors are of four types: hollow fiber types; suspension or encapsulation; monolayer and scaffolds. The bioreactors are mainly used for the improvement in the cell oxygenation as well as mass- exchange. In most of the cases, it is seen that the bioreactors do not consist of the biliary system, which aids in the excretion of conjugated bilirubin. Hence, for proper excretion of this bilirubin, an artificial mode is attached to the bioreactors, which help in the removal of this bilirubin, thereby preventing toxicity.

The bio artificial livers consist mainly of the freshly isolated or cryopreserved porcine hepatocytes as they are easily available. Though, they may provide reliable data regarding the restoration of function of the liver function due to similar biologic properties like human hepatocytes, but there are a number of disadvantages regarding their use. The xenozoonosis i.e xeno transplantation effect due to using cells of different species causes unreliability in the data observed by using porcine hepatocytes in the bioreactors. The transmission of the pathogens like porcine retrovirus also is another added disadvantage in their use. Hence, freshly isolated human hepatocytes must be used as cryopreservation of the same causes the loss of the enzyme function largely. The research carried out using human-origin hepatocytes provides reliable data regarding the advantages in using bioreactors in the treatment of ALF. Immortal hepatocytes developed from hepatoblastoma cell line or other tumor cells have also been developed for the study of bioreactors, though the possible toxicity resulting from using such cells cannot be ignored. Hepatocytes have also been developed from the tissues slices of the discarded donor livers, though their availability at the required time cannot be guaranteed.

The clinical proofs regarding the use of bio artificial livers are not much favourable in the present scenario. The hepatocytes used in the bioreactors may not always be completely differentiated ensuring proper function nor are they always present in 3D conformation. Moreover, the patients used for clinical trials are diverse in nature; hence, the resulting statistical data may not provide concrete positive result. The bioartificial livers may provide bridge in the treatment of the patients until the availability of the liver to be transplanted, but the lasting effect of the use of bioartificial livers on the patients after transplantation has not yet been proved completely. The clinical trials with the human hepatocytes are going on and much research is needed before the bio artificial livers can be successfully used in the treatment of the ALF patients.

Liver Problems

Source(google.com.pk)
Liver Problems Biography
Conducting research into: liver cancer, liver injury, liver immunology, alcoholic liver disease, liver cell biology and molecular hepatology.

Chronic Liver damage affects up to 20% of our population. It has many causes - viral infections (Hepatitis B and C), toxins, genetic, metabolic and autoimmune diseases.

Recently the onset of liver disease has also been linked to diabetes and obesity, two health problems which are increasing significantly in Australia.

Liver cancer, which is often caused by chronic liver damage, is one of the fastest growing diseases in our community. The rate of liver cancer in Australia has increased four-fold in the past 20 years. Sadly this trend is expected to continue.

An increased understanding of the liver diseases that lead to cancer and chronic liver failure is essential in bringing forth new treatments.

The Centenary institute is working on liver health and disease from five key perspectives.


How inflammation drives fibrosis, or hardening of the liver, which can lead to scarring (cirrhosis) and finally liver cancer

How liver damage leads to liver failure or liver cancer, so we can slow down the progression of liver disease

Liver injury and cancer in those suffering with type 2 diabetes

Diagnostics and therapies for Alcoholic Liver Disease, as well as genetic risk factors

The unique immune response of the liver to improve liver transplantation and clear chronic infections like Hep B & Hep C
Centenary Institute has recruited one of the world’s most exciting teams of highly qualified researchers and specialist clinicians to find out what causes liver disease and how to control it.
Make a monetary liver donation to fight liver cancer today! Your donation will help Australian researchers understand this disease & find a cure.
Minimal encephalopathy was originally associated with chronic liver disease but is increasingly associated with most other chronic diseases and particularly with diabetes and also chronic disorders in other organs: kidneys, lungs, thyroid and with obesity. It is increasingly with dramatically increased and more or less permanent increase in systemic inflammation, most likely a result of Western lifestyle. Frequent physical exercise and intake of foods rich in vitamins, antioxidants, fibres, lactic acid bacteria etc in combination with reduction in intake of refined and processed foods is known to reduce systemic inflammation and prevent chronic diseases. Some lactic acid bacteria, especially Lb paracasei, lb plantarum and pediococcus pentosaceus have proven effective to reduce inflammation and eliminate encephalopathy. Significant reduction in blood ammonia levels and endotoxin levels were reported in parallel to improvement of liver disease. Subsequent studies with other lactic acid bacteria seem to demonstrate suppression of inflammation and one study also provides evidence of clinical improvement.

Saturday, 9 February 2013

Diagnosis Of Cancer

Source(google.com.pk)
Diagnosis Of Cancer Biography
One of the common emotions or feelings that survivors experience is a real sense of uncertainty and loss when faced with a diagnosis of cancer.

Cancer changes people in ways that aren't always visible. In a way, your life has been interrupted by cancer, which may leave you with a feeling a loss of control or that your story is incomplete.

Many of you search for a sense of meaning or purpose behind your diagnosis. As you search for meaning in your experience, the process can help you deal with the stress and feelings of uncertainty and fear.

As you complete the intense experience of diagnosis and treatment, finding meaning in survivorship can help you live in the moment. You may gain a new sense of appreciation for living and a strong need to understand what greater purpose you may have to complete.

Everyone deals with these emotions differently. Finding joy and gratitude during this time isn't always easy, but set your intentions on giving it a try. Focus on the things that are good in your life. Ask yourself — Who am I? Why am I here? As you look for new meaning in your life, you may want to consider of few of these ideas:

Keep a journal of your thoughts and feelings — focus on what you are grateful for.
Use the creative process to uncover deep emotions using art, music or meditation — focus on newfound joy.
Identify the things that are most important in your life — start to plan for your future.
Talk to other survivors and share your experience on the topic of finding meaning in their cancer experience.
You may find that in the process of searching for meaning, you identify areas in your life that you'd like to change. Make a plan for how you'll do this. Remember to focus and channel your energy on those things that bring personal happiness and joy.

An excellent resource on this topic is a book titled "Train Your Brain ... Engage Your Heart ... Transform Your Life," by Amit Sood, M.D. Dr. Sood is the Director of Research and Practice — Complementary and Integrative Medicine at Mayo Clinic.
Many cancer survivors have told us that while they felt they had lots of information and support during their illness, once treatment stopped, they entered a whole new world - one filled with new questions. This booklet was written to share common feelings and reactions that many people just like you have had after treatment ended.

It also offers some practical tips to help you through this time. Use this booklet in whatever way works best for you. You can read it from beginning to end. Or you can just refer to the section you need.

Who is a Survivor?
This booklet uses the term "cancer survivor" to include anyone who has been diagnosed with cancer, from the time of diagnosis through the rest of his or her life. Family members, friends, and caregivers are also part of the survivorship experience.

You may not like the word, or you may feel that it does not apply to you, but the word "survivor" helps many people think about embracing their lives beyond their illness.

This booklet shares what we have learned from other survivors about life after cancer: practical ways of dealing with common problems and guidelines for managing your physical, social, and emotional health. When possible, we include specific information from research with cancer survivors.

While cancer is a major event for all who are diagnosed, it brings with it the chance for growth. As hard as treatment can be, many cancer survivors have told us that the experience led them to make important changes in their lives. Many say they now take time to appreciate each new day. They also have learned how to take better care of themselves and value how others care for them. Others draw from their experience to become advocates to improve cancer research, treatment, and care.

We hope that this booklet will serve as a resource and inspiration to you as you face forward to your life after cancer.

Blood In Urine ladder Cancer

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Blood In Urine ladder Cancer Biography
Leukemia is a type of cancer which affects the bone marrow and is characterized by unrestrained proliferation of white blood cells. Its name “leukemia” means “white blood” since this cancer is characterized by a high number of white cells in the blood, many of which are immature or dysfunctional.

There are many types of leukemias, many of which develop as an acute (most frequent form in children) or a chronic disease.

Different leukemias have been linked to different causes, such as exposure to ionizing radiation or chemicals such as benzene or tobacco smoke. It can also develop as a consequence of chemotherapy for previous malignacies or viral infections (HTLV-1 virus). Some develop in people with chromosomal abnormalities or other genetic abnormalities.

Leukemia leads to the formation of metastatic colonies in other organs which requires a penetration of cancer cells through matrix barriers and blood vessel walls, a process mediated through MMPs

We investigated the effects of micronutrients on a number of human leukemia cells, including Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), a fatal disease with an average survival time of less than one year, and  murine leukemia cells. In addition to using the micronutrient mixture we investigated the anti-cancer effects of some of its components individually, such as vitamin C, lysine and EGCG from green tea.

We have evaluated the effects of these micronutrients on limiting leukemia cancer cell growth, triggering the natural elimination of cancer cells by the induction of apoptosis (cell suicide), and decreasing cancer invasiveness by inhibition of  MMP secretion. In addition to the in vitro studies we also investigated the effects of micronutrient synergy on suppression of the tumor growth in nude mice.

Our results suggest that a specific combination of micronutrients containing vitamin C, Lysine, green tea extract rich in EGCG, and other natural components, is a promising new therapeutic agent for leukemia, and is a potential candidate for human trials.

Blood And Cancer

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Blood And Cancer Biography
In the battle against cancer, Dr. Judah Folkman (born 1933) has found a new approach: to attack the blood vessels that nourish cancer cells. The results of initial tests in cancer-bearing mice performed in 1998 were promising enough to raise the hopes of both cancer patients and physicians worldwide.
A noted professor, physician, and former surgeon-in-chief at the Boston Pediatric Hospital, Dr. Judah M. Folkman has demonstrated that by cutting off the blood supply nourishing cancer cells, cancer tumors can be killed with only negligible side effects. Theorizing on a method to prevent the growth of existing tumors, Folkman decided to try blocking the signals sent out by these tumors to perform angiogenesis - the formation of new blood vessels. To test his theory, he used two agents - angiostatin and endostatin - to treat cancer in laboratory mice. Although the results were positive, they were not conclusive, for other cancer-fighting drugs had a history of working well on mice but not as well on humans. By 2000 there remained the task of completing extensive tests on humans before Entre Med Inc., a Rockville, Maryland-based biotech company, could begin to put the new compounds on the market.

Discovered How Cancer Cells Grow
The son of Rabbi Jerome Folkman and his wife, Bessie, Folkman came to a love of medicine early in life. At his bar mitzvah his father told him to be a credit to his people; as an adult Folkman determined to dedicate himself to cancer research as a way of following his father's advice. In 1961 he made an astounding discovery. While doing medical research in a U.S. Navy laboratory, he found that cancer cells grow because they have an abundant blood supply. From this discovery Folkman developed the theory of angio-genesis and hypothesized further that cancers could not thrive without this abundant blood supply. A tumor formed, he theorized, because it could somehow stimulate new blood cells to deliver to it the nutrients it required in order to grow. Without sufficient blood, a cancer would not be able to grow any larger than a pin head.
Folkman's theory led him to look for ways to block blood vessel growth. He worked for years before he was able to develop compounds that sufficiently inhibited angiogenesis. These compounds, the human proteins endostatin and angiostatin, seemed like the answer to a prayer for people affected by cancer. Endostatin in particular showed promise; its marked lack of toxicity seemed to make it safe for human testing and two small-scale clinical trials at the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) were authorized to further examine its effects on humans.
In February 1999, the NCI verified that Folkman's results with endostatin could be replicated. The human protein endostatin not only inhibited tumor growth in mice, but also showed no side effects when tested on in monkeys, even when administered in high doses. In an exciting announcement, the NCI confirmed that endostatin's anti-angiogenesis properties dramatically shrank cancerous tumors in laboratory mice.
The NCI's announcement came at the end of 30 years of arduous work on the part of Folkman. Years of work resulted in his discovery that blood vessels provided the key to cancer's survival, and much more research was subsequently undertaken in order for him to determine the basic process by which cancerous tumors spark the formation of the new blood vessels required to feed their growth. "Most research is failure," Folkman told NOVA producer Nancy Linde. "You go years and years and years, and then every once in a while there is a tremendous finding, and you realize for the first time in your life that you know something that hour or that day that nobody else in history has ever known, and you can understand something of how nature works."
Perhaps most frustrating for Folkman during his decades of research was the time it took him to convince the medical community that his theory had merit. Although he encountered skepticism from researchers, Folkman persisted because he knew that as a surgeon he had the hands-on experience with live human cancer tissues that researchers lacked. During surgery, Folkman had seen small tumors in the thyroid gland and the lining of the abdomen that never grew very large because they could not stimulate blood vessel growth. That led him to think that some kind of angiogenesis factor, possibly a diffusible protein, could stimulate the growth of blood vessels in certain tissues. But where the factor could not stimulate the formation of new blood vessels, the cancer did not grow. That meant cancer could be kept from growing if it could not attract the formation of a nutrient source. Folkman focused on determining what the factor was and if it could be blocked.
Discovered the Angiogenic Factor
Folkman maintains that being a researcher is one of the hardest jobs around, because, unlike a surgeon, a researcher doesn't get feedback from patients. That means that years of criticism, along with funding problems, must be faced before any positive reinforcement results from one's work. His own research experience was no exception to that rule. Fortunately, he was persistent; his knowledge as a practicing surgeon gave him the courage to continue presenting his ideas.
Although Folkman's ideas were at first largely discounted, by the 1970s that began to change. Researchers agreed that tumors did seem to cause the presence of new blood vessels, but most thought it was a side effect of dying cancer cells. They did not believe that the live cells actually stimulated the formation of new blood vessels.
When Robert Auerbach came to Folkman's lab, the two researchers conducted an experiment that proved the cancer cells were in fact causing the formation of blood vessels as a means of feeding their growth. Auerbach put live tumor cells in one eye of a rabbit and dying tumor cells in the other eye. The results showed that blood vessels formed around the live cells, not the dying ones. This proved that live cancer cells were actually causing the growth of the blood vessels.
In 1971 the New England Journal of Medicine published Folkman's paper that discussed the angiogenesis factor. Folkman began by noting that new blood vessels were recruited by tumors. Second, he maintained, the tumors sent out a factor that caused angiogenesis, or the formation of new blood vessels. Third, he said, this factor would stimulate the growth of new blood vessels. If this factor could be blocked, he hypothesized, tumors would stay small.
In 1984 Folkman and his team of researchers published a paper about the first angiogenic factor, a molecule that stimulated angiogenesis. He was later to discover 17 molecules, but the discovery of the first convinced him that he was on the right track. When he was unable to find the biological factor that stimulated blood vessel growth, Folkman began to wonder if he was being headstrong about his ideas rather than persistent. Realizing that he was right took time, but it was worth it in the end, when the medical community realized that through his work there was new hope for cancer patients: their disease could be stopped without debilitating side effects.
Experimented with Inhibitors
Killing cancer is a daunting task that often requires extensive drug treatments, chemotherapy, and radiation, which takes a heavy toll on healthy cells in the body. Cancer cells are more resistant to drugs than are normal cells, which is part of the reason why they are so hard to kill. The genius of Folkman's solution is that blood vessels are normal cells that respond readily to drugs. When subjected to angiostatin and endostatin treatments, blood vessels disappear, and with them, the tumors that feed on them. The anti-angiogenesis process might be compared to starving an enemy out by laying siege to his castle. No food supplies can get in, so the enemy eventually weakens. "We have been leveling out in our ability to stop cancer using available tools," Robert Siegel, director of hematology and oncology at George Washington University Medical Center, told Insight on the News: "The idea of having a completely new approach that is effective with some cancers is exciting."
Following testing on endostatin and its approval for use on human subjects, Duane Gay was one of the first to be treated with the substance. Although a tumor in his rib grew, those in his liver, lungs, and kidney stabilized. With the anti-angiogenic benefits of the drug interferon-alpha, Folkman also had successes treating children with hemangiomas, or life-threatening masses of blood capillaries. By the year 2000, 30 drugs were considered angiogenic inhibitors.
The Value of Observation
That Folkman perceived something no one else had noticed while working with cancer patients was not surprising to the people who know him best. Dr. C. Everett Koop, one of Folkman's colleagues at Boston Children's Hospital, found his colleague's power of observation startling. For example, when Folkman started in pediatric surgery, he had no experience working on young children. Koop painstakingly showed him the difference between pediatric tissues and adult tissues. While watching Koop, Folkman discovered that Koop's technique largely depended on steadying things with his left thumbnail against his left forefinger. Fingernails, Folkman decided, made all the difference. Koop had never realized how important his fingernails were before, but he knew Folkman was right.
Folkman's skill as a pediatric surgeon grew, as did his skill as a physician and researcher. He also becames a noteworthy professor whose students at Harvard Medical School counted him among their best teachers. Throughout the years Folkman conveyed to his students the importance of staying connected to patients. As a doctor, he gave his home telephone number and beeper number so that his patients could contact him. As a surgeon, he believed there was no such thing as "false hope." He advised his students never to tell a patient that there was nothing they could do to help him or her, because there was always something, even if it was only making the patient feel better.
In all his years of research, Folkman never lost sight of the people he was helping. Despite repeated criticism, he persevered with his assertions regarding cancer treatments until the medical community finally acknowledged that his research had in fact expanded their understanding of the disease. In fact, Folkman's research has applications for 26 diseases, including arthritis, cancer, Crohn's disease, endometriosis, and leukemia.
Robert Cooke, author of Dr. Folkman's War: Angiogenesis and the Struggle to Defeat Cancer, wrote that by 2000 Folkman's work was clearly recognized as having contributed to the sum of medical knowledge. "Finally it seemed that his peers were judging him to be persistent, not obstinate," Cooke wrote. "This was a distinction he had long sought. Now it seemed clear that great strides had been made largely because one man worked, pushed, and badgered one idea for so many years. Step by painful step, at first alone and then with colleagues he had engaged the struggle, Folkman had faced the objections and surmounted all the barriers that inflexible critics and doubters threw in his path. This experience had bred an enduring confidence and had even given him a sense of peace."

What Is A Lymphoma

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What Is A Lymphoma Biography

Lymphoma is a type of blood cancer that occurs when lymphocytes, white blood cells that form a part of the immune system and help protect the body from infection and disease, begin behaving abnormally. Abnormal lymphocytes may divide faster than normal cells or they may live longer than they are supposed to. Lymphoma may develop in many parts of the body, including the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, blood or other organs.[1]
Typically, lymphoma presents as a solid tumor of lymphoid cells. Treatment might involve chemotherapy and in some cases radiotherapy and/or bone marrow transplantation, and can be curable depending on the histology, type, and stage of the disease.[2] These malignant cells often originate in lymph nodes, presenting as an enlargement of the node (a tumor). It can also affect other organs in which case it is referred to as extranodal lymphoma. Extranodal sites include the skin, brain, bowels and bone. Lymphomas are closely related to lymphoid leukemias, which also originate in lymphocytes but typically involve only circulating blood and the bone marrow (where blood cells are generated in a process termed haematopoesis) and do not usually form static tumors.[2] There are many types of lymphomas, and in turn, lymphomas are a part of the broad group of diseases called hematological neoplasms.