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Wednesday, 2 October 2013

Tips From Former Smokers

Tips From Former Smokers Biography

The individuals below are participating in the Tips From Former Smokers Campaign. All of them have been affected by cigarette smoke. Some are former smokers and some have never smoked. Almost all of them are living with smoking-related diseases and disabilities. These diseases and disabilities changed the quality of their lives — some dramatically — including how they eat, dress and do daily tasks. Some had to give up activities they once loved to do. They speak from experience and agreed to share their stories with you, to send a single, powerful message: Quit smoking now. Or better yet — don't ever start.

Meet Annette Meet Annette. Annette, age 57, lives in New York and began smoking in her teens. At age 52, she was diagnosed with lung cancer, which required removal of one of her lungs. She was later diagnosed with oral cancer.

Meet Beatrice Meet Beatrice. Beatrice, age 40, lives in New York and began smoking regularly at age 13. A mother of two, she quit smoking in 2010 because she wanted to be around for her family.

Meet Bill Meet Bill. Bill, age 40, lives in Michigan and has diabetes. At 15, he started smoking cigarettes. At 39, he quit smoking after his leg was amputated due to poor circulation—made worse from smoking.

Meet Brandon Meet Brandon. Brandon, age 31, lives in North Dakota and began smoking at age 15. At 18, he was diagnosed with Buerger's disease, which resulted in the amputation of both his legs and several fingertips.

Meet Christine Meet Christine. Christine, age 49, lives in Pennsylvania and began smoking at age 16. At age 44, she was diagnosed with oral cancer, which eventually required doctors to remove half of her jaw.

Meet Ellie Meet Ellie. Ellie, age 57, lives in Florida and never smoked. At 35, she started having asthma attacks triggered from breathing secondhand smoke at work. The severe attacks forced her to leave a job she loved.

Meet Jamason Meet Jamason. Jamason, age 18, lives in Kentucky. He was an infant when he was diagnosed with asthma. When people smoke around him, the secondhand smoke can trigger life-threatening asthma attacks.

Meet James Meet James. James, age 48, lives in New York and began smoking at age 14. He quit smoking in 2010 to reduce his risk for health problems and now bikes 10 miles every day.

Meet Jessica Meet Jessica. Jessica, age 28, lives in New York and has never smoked. Her son, Aden, was diagnosed with asthma at age 3, and exposure to secondhand smoke has triggered asthma attacks.

Meet Mariano Meet Mariano. Mariano, 55, lives in Illinois. He started smoking at 15. In 2004, he had open heart surgery and barely escaped having a heart attack. He quit smoking—grateful for a second chance at life.

Meet Marie Meet Marie. Marie, age 62, lives in New York and began smoking in high school. Diagnosed with Buerger's disease in her forties, Marie has undergone amputations of part of her right foot, her left leg, and several fingertips.

Meet Michael Meet Michael. Michael, age 57, lives in Alaska and began smoking at age 9. At 44, he was diagnosed with COPD—chronic obstructive pulmonary disease—which makes it harder and harder to breathe and can cause death.

Meet Nathan Meet Nathan. Nathan, 54, lives in Idaho. A member of the Oglala Sioux tribe, he was exposed to secondhand smoke at work that caused permanent lung damage and triggered asthma attacks so severe he had to leave his job.

Meet Roosevelt Meet Roosevelt. Roosevelt, age 51, lives in Virginia and began smoking in his teens. At age 45, he had a heart attack. Doctors later placed stents in his heart and performed six bypasses.

Meet Shane Meet Shane. Shane lives in Wisconsin and began smoking at age 18. At age 34, he was diagnosed with throat cancer and his larynx and upper esophagus were removed. Today, at age 44, he continues to battle cancer.

Meet Sharon Meet Sharon. Sharon, age 52, lives in Illinois and began smoking at age 13. In 1997, at age 37, she was diagnosed with stage IV throat cancer.

Meet Shawn Meet Shawn. Shawn, age 51, lives in Washington State and began smoking at age 14. At 46, he was diagnosed with throat cancer that required 38 radiation treatments and the removal of his larynx.

Meet Suzy Meet Suzy. Suzy, age 62, lives in New York and began smoking at age 15. At age 57, Suzy suffered a stroke that caused her to have partial paralysis and problems with her speech and eyes.

Meet Terrie Meet Terrie. Terrie lived in North Carolina and began smoking in high school. At 40, she was diagnosed with oral and throat cancers and had her larynx removed. She died of a smoking-related cancer on September 16, 2013. She was 53.

Meet Tiffany Meet Tiffany. Tiffany, age 35, lives in Louisiana. She started smoking at 19, even though her mother, a smoker, died of lung cancer. Tiffany quit smoking—wanting to be around for her own teenage daughter.

Meet Wilma Meet Wilma. Wilma, age 49, lives in Texas and began smoking in her early teens. She quit smoking in 2007 to reduce her risk for health problems.

Mouth Cancer Symptoms From Smoking

Mouth Cancer Symptoms From Smoking Biography

Mouth Cancer Symptoms From Smoking

Mouth Cancer Symptoms From Smoking

What Is Cancer?
Cancer refers to diseases in which abnormal cells divide out of control and are able to invade other tissues. Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems.1,2
There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for the organ or type of cell in which they start — for example, lung cancer begins in the lung and laryngeal cancer begins in the larynx (voice box).1
Symptoms can include:3
A thickening or lump in any part of the body
Weight loss or gain with no known reason
Sores that won't heal
A new mole or a changes in an existing mole
Hoarseness or a cough that does not go away
A hard time swallowing
Indigestion or pain after eating that does not go away
Changes in bowel or bladder habits
Unusual bleeding or discharge
Feeling weak or very tired

How Is Smoking Related to Cancer?
Smoking can cause cancer and then block your body from fighting it:4
Poisons in cigarette smoke can weaken the body’s immune system, making it harder to kill cancer cells. When this happens, cancer cells keep growing without being stopped.
Poisons in tobacco smoke can damage or change a cell"s DNA. DNA is the cell"s "instruction manual" that controls a cell"s normal growth and function. When DNA is damaged, a cell can begin growing out of control and create a cancer tumor.
Doctors have known for years that smoking causes most lung cancer. Nearly 9 out of 10 men who die from lung cancer are smokers. And about 3,000 nonsmokers die each year from lung cancer caused by secondhand smoke.4
Smoking can cause cancer almost anywhere in your body, including the:4
Mouth, nose, and throat
Kidneys and ureters
Bone marrow and blood
Smokeless tobacco also causes cancer, including cancers of the:5
Mouth and throat

How Can Smoking-Related Cancers Be Prevented?
Quitting smoking lowers the risks for cancers of the lung, mouth, throat, esophagus, and larynx.4,6
Within 5 years of quitting, your chance of cancer of the mouth, throat, esophagus, and bladder is cut in half.4
Ten years after you quit smoking, your risk of dying from lung cancer drops by half.4
If nobody smoked, one of every three cancer deaths in the United States would not happen.4

How Is Cancer Treated?
The treatment for cancer depends on the type of cancer and the stage of the disease (how severe the cancer is and whether it has spread). Doctors may also consider the patient's age and general health. Often, the goal of treatment is to cure the cancer. In other cases, the goal is to control the disease or to reduce symptoms for as long as possible. The treatment plan for a person may change over time.

Most treatment plans include surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Some plans involve hormone therapy (a treatment to keep cancer cells from getting the hormones they need to grow). Other plans involve biological therapy (a treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer).
Some cancers respond best to a single type of treatment. Other cancers may respond best to a combination of treatments.

For patients who get very high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy, a stem cell transplant, also known as a bone marrow transplant, may be recommended by their doctor. This is because high-dose therapies destroy both cancer cells and normal blood cells. A stem cell transplant can help the body to make healthy blood cells to replace the ones lost due to the cancer treatment. It’s a complicated procedure with many side effects and risks.

Mouth cancer Treatment

Mouth cancer Treatment Biography

This factsheet is for people who have mouth cancer, or who would like information about it, including symptoms, causes and treatments.

Mouth cancer (oral cancer) is caused by an abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells in the mouth.

Animation: How cancer develops
About mouth cancer
Types of mouth cancer
Symptoms of mouth cancer
Causes of mouth cancer
Diagnosis of mouth cancer
Treatment of mouth cancer
Prevention of mouth cancer

Animation: How Cancer Develops

About mouth cancer

Mouth cancer includes cancer that starts anywhere in your mouth, including:

your lips
your tongue
your gums
in the floor of your mouth or under your tongue
inside your cheeks and lips
in the roof of your mouth (the palate)
in the area behind your wisdom teeth
Nearly 5,400 people are diagnosed with mouth cancer every year in the UK. Most of these people are over the age of 50, and it affects more men than women.

Types of mouth cancer
Nine out of 10 mouth cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. They develop in the flat, skin-like cells that cover the inside of your mouth. Other, rarer types of mouth cancer include:

salivary gland cancer, which starts in your salivary gland cells
lymphoma, which starts in lymph tissue near the base of your tongue and tonsils
melanoma, which starts in skin pigment cells around your mouth or on your lips
Symptoms of mouth cancer

The two most common symptoms of mouth cancer are:

an ulcer in your mouth or on your lip that won't heal
constant discomfort or pain in your mouth
Other symptoms can include:

red or white patches in your mouth
a lump on your lip, tongue or in your neck
bad breath
unexplained bleeding in your mouth
numbness in your mouth
loose teeth
problems chewing or swallowing, difficulty moving your jaw or a feeling that something is caught in your throat
changes to your voice – it may sound husky or quieter or you may slur your words
weight loss because of problems swallowing
These symptoms aren't always caused by mouth cancer but if you have any of them, see your GP or dentist.

Causes of mouth cancer

The exact reasons why you may develop mouth cancer aren't fully understood at present. However, you may be more likely to develop mouth cancer if you:

smoke any form of tobacco – cigarettes, cigars and pipes, as well as bidis or hand-rolled cigarettes that contain cannabis
chew tobacco, such as betel quid, gutkha and paan
drink excessive alcohol, especially at the same time as smoking or chewing tobacco
have already had certain types of cancer, such as skin cancer
regularly expose yourself to the sun or ultraviolet (UV) light as this increases the risk of lip cancer
have a weakened immune system – people who have HIV/AIDS, or who are taking medicines that suppress the immune system, are more likely to develop mouth cancer
eat a poor diet that doesn’t include many vitamins and minerals
have the human papilloma virus (HPV) as this causes some cancers of the oropharynx (part of the throat at the back of your mouth), including the soft palate, the base of your tongue, and your tonsils

Diagnosis of mouth cancer
The earlier mouth cancer is diagnosed, the better your chances of recovery. Your dentist may spot mouth cancer in its early stages during a routine check-up, so it's important to visit your dentist regularly.

Your GP or dentist will ask about your symptoms and examine you. He or she may also ask you about your medical history. Your GP or dentist will feel your neck and face to check for swellings and may refer you to a head and neck specialist for further tests.

You may have the following tests to confirm a diagnosis of mouth cancer.

Mouth and throat examination – your doctor may use a special instrument called a flexible laryngoscope to look inside your mouth and throat.
Biopsy – a biopsy is a small sample of tissue. This will be sent to a laboratory for testing to determine the type of cells and if they are benign (not cancerous) or cancerous.
If you're found to have cancer, you may need to have other tests to assess if the cancer has spread. The process of finding out the stage of a cancer is called staging. The tests may include the following.

X-rays of your upper and lower jaw (Panorex X-ray), or your chest, or both.
Scans, which may include ultrasound, MRI or CT. These will check your muscles, organs and tissues in your face, throat and chest.
Further biopsies of nearby lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are glands throughout the body that are part of the immune system.

Endoscopy. This allows a doctor to look at the inside of the body. The test is done using a narrow, flexible, tube-like telescopic camera called an endoscope.
A barium swallow and meal test, which involves swallowing a drink containing barium (a substance which shows up on X-rays). X-ray images will show up any unusual growths in your digestive system down to your stomach.

Treatment of mouth cancer
Your treatment will depend on the type of mouth cancer you have, where it is and how far it has spread. Your doctor will discuss your treatment options with you. There are three main treatments for mouth cancer. These are surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

Surgery (including the use of lasers) involves removing the affected tissue. Your surgeon may also need to remove the lymph nodes in your neck or other affected tissues in your mouth and neck. How much surgery you need will depend on how much tissue is affected.

If you have surgery to remove a small tumour in your mouth, it may not cause you any lasting problems but if you have a larger tumour, your surgeon may need to remove part of your palate, tongue, or jaw. This surgery may change your ability to chew, swallow, or talk and your face may look different after surgery. You may need to have reconstructive or plastic surgery to rebuild the bones or tissues in your mouth.

Surgery is sometimes followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy treatment to make sure all the cancer cells are destroyed.

Non-surgical treatments
Non-surgical treatments include the following.

Radiotherapy uses radiation to destroy cancer cells. A beam of radiation is targeted on the cancerous cells, which shrinks the tumour. Much less commonly, a source of radioactivity will be implanted in your mouth. This is called brachytherapy. Radiotherapy can now be targeted to the area that needs treating to prevent damaging normal tissues close by.

Chemotherapy uses medicines to destroy cancer cells. They are usually injected into a vein but are sometimes available as tablets. Chemotherapy is often used in combination with radiotherapy. Radiotherapy targets the area of cancer and chemotherapy may kill cancer cells that have moved elsewhere in your body.

Biological therapy
Biological therapy changes the activity of cancer cells. Cetuximab is a type of biological therapy that is known as a monoclonal antibody. Cetuximab blocks areas on the surface of cancer cells that can trigger growth. You may have it along with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, if you have advanced squamous mouth or oropharyngeal cancer.

Prevention of mouth cancer
Making some simple lifestyle changes can reduce your risk of mouth cancer. These include the following.

Visit your dentist for regular check-ups.
Look for any changes in your mouth such as sore patches or ulcers that don't heal and report them to your GP.
Don't smoke.
Don't chew tobacco.
Drink only in moderation. The Department of Health guidelines recommend that men drink no more than three or four units a day and women drink no more than two or three units a day.
Eat a healthy diet with at least five portions of fruit and vegetables a day.
Protect your skin from sunlight and other UV exposure such as sunbeds. Wear sunblock on your lips, stay out of the sun between 11am and 3pm and wear a wide-brimmed hat to protect your face.