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Sunday, 30 December 2012

Symptoms For Mouth Cancer

Source(google.com.pk)
Symptoms For Mouth Cancer Biography
About 600 people in Victoria are diagnosed with cancer of the mouth, nose or throat each year. Mouth cancer usually starts in the cells lining the mouth. The most common sites are the lips, tongue and floor of the mouth, but cancer can also originate in the gums, cheeks, roof of the mouth, hard and soft palate, tonsils and salivary glands. People over the age of 45 years are at increased risk, with men twice as likely as women to develop these types of cancers.

Smoking increases the risk of mouth cancer six-fold. The location of the cancer seems to depend on the usage of the tobacco product – for example, a person who habitually tucks plugs of chewing tobacco into their left cheek may be prone to cancer of that cheek. Heavy alcohol consumption increases the risk of mouth cancer even more. Mouth cancer is easily cured if treated in its earlier stages, but around half of patients don’t consult with their doctor until their disease is well advanced.

Symptoms
The symptoms of mouth cancer can include:
A visible mass or lump that may or may not be painful.
An ulcer that won’t heal.
A persistent blood blister.
Bleeding from the mass or ulcer.
Loss of sensation anywhere in the mouth.
Trouble swallowing.
Impaired tongue mobility.
Difficulty moving the jaw.
Speech changes, such as slurring or lack of clarity.
Loose teeth and/or sore gums.
Altered taste.
Swollen lymph glands.

Mouth Cancer Can Spread
The membranes of the mouth, nose and throat are lined with flat, firm cells called squamous cells. Most mouth cancers originate in these surface cells.

Without treatment, squamous cell carcinoma can burrow into the deeper tissue layers, including muscle and bone, and spread to nearby structures such as the throat or lymph glands of the neck. Mouth cancer can migrate (metastasise) to other parts of the body if it accesses the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

Risk Factors
The exact cause of mouth cancer is unknown, although tobacco products are thought to play a significant role in about 80 per cent of cases. Risk factors may include:
Tobacco use
Regular and heavy alcohol consumption
Advancing age
Sun exposure
Poor diet
Poor oral hygiene
Gum disease
Habitual chewing of the lips or cheeks
Irritants, such as breathing in smoky, or constantly polluted, atmospheres
Leukoplakia (light-coloured patches of atypical cells inside the mouth)
Herpes simplex infection (cold sores)
Human papilloma virus infection (warts)
Family history of cancer (genetic makeup).

Diagnosis Methods
Mouth cancer is diagnosed using a number of tests including:
Medical history
Physical examination
Biopsy (a sample of suspect tissue is removed for examination in a laboratory)
X-rays
Ultrasound
CT scan
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan
PET (position emission tomography) scan
Simultaneous MRI-PET scans.

Treatment options
Treatment depends on the size, type and location of the cancer and whether it has spread, but can include:
Surgery - the tumour is surgically removed, if small. The lymph glands on the affected side may also be removed if the tumour extends into these.
Radiation therapy - small, precise doses of ionising radiation target and destroy cancer cells. This type of treatment is often all that’s needed for small, localised cancers.
Chemotherapy - the use of cancer-killing drugs, often in combination with surgery and/or radiotherapy. Chemotherapy may sometimes be used to shrink a tumour before surgery.
Multi-modal treatments - Surgery on larger tumours may be followed with radiation therapy. Chemo-radiotherapy may also be used.
Long term monitoring – this may include regular oral examinations and occasional X-rays to make sure the cancer hasn’t come back.
Therapy – this may include speech therapy, dietary advice and regular medical follow-up. Clinical psychologists, social workers and counsellors can also help people come to terms with the post-operative changes to their lives and appearance.

Side Effects of Treatment
Depending on the size, type and location of the cancer, and the treatments used, side effects can include:

Tooth Loss – if loose or bad teeth are left in place, then there is a danger that radiotherapy treatment will result in osteoradionecrosis (destruction of the jaw bone), so any bad teeth need to be removed before treatment. Dentures can then be fitted, once the cancer treatment is finished.

Need For Prostheses – in some cases, diseased bone (such as parts of the jaw) have to be removed and replaced with prosthetic devices. In severe cases where swallowing is troublesome, the person may have to be fed indirectly, either via the nose (naso-gastric tube) or directly into the stomach (gastrostomy tube).
Scarring and deformity – to make sure that no cancerous cells remain, some healthy tissue bordering the tumour must also be removed during surgery. The excision of a large tumour can cause substantial scarring and deformity. Surgery to the tongue, for example, may cause permanent changes to speech and swallowing. Sometimes skin or tissue grafts from other parts of the body are used to help reconstruct the face and the structures of the mouth.

Damage To Salivary Glands – radiation therapy can harm the salivary glands and reduce their output of saliva. This causes a permanently dry mouth (xerostomia). Management strategies can include taking medication to increase the amount of saliva produced, or regularly using a prescribed gel or spray of artificial saliva preparations.

Infections – most people who have undergone radiation therapy for mouth cancer have an increased susceptibility to mouth infections such as Candida albicans or ‘thrush’. Medication helps alleviate this problem.

Nausea – some of the many short-term side effects of chemotherapy include nausea, vomiting and hair loss.
Palliative Care
Sometimes, the cancer is too advanced and a cure isn’t possible. Palliative care is not a cure, but aims to manage pain and reduce the severity of symptoms. Some of the options may include:
Individually tailored pain management, developed in consultation with the person’s doctors and palliative care experts.
Pain-killing drugs, such as paracetamol and opioid drugs, chosen to suit individual patients and to minimise side effects.
Radiotherapy, surgery, hormone therapy and chemotherapy may also relieve pain, if these treatments shrink the tumour size.
Artificial saliva preparations or drugs to increase saliva production can help relieve the discomfort of a dry mouth.
Psychological, spiritual and social counselling to help the person (and family members) come to terms with their terminal condition.
Palliative care can be provided at home.
Symptoms For Mouth Cancer
Symptoms For Mouth Cancer
Symptoms For Mouth Cancer
Symptoms For Mouth Cancer
Symptoms For Mouth Cancer
Symptoms For Mouth Cancer
Symptoms For Mouth Cancer
Symptoms For Mouth Cancer
Symptoms For Mouth Cancer
Symptoms For Mouth Cancer
Symptoms For Mouth Cancer
Symptoms For Mouth Cancer
Symptoms For Mouth Cancer

What Are The Symptoms Of Mouth Cancer

Source(google.com.pk)
What Are The Symptoms Of Mouth Cancer Biography
Mouth cancer includes cancer that starts anywhere in your mouth, including:

your lips
your tongue
your gums
in the floor of your mouth or under your tongue
inside your cheeks and lips
in the roof of your mouth (the palate)
in the area behind your wisdom teeth
Nearly 5,400 people are diagnosed with mouth cancer every year in the UK. Most of these people are over the age of 50, and it affects more men than women.

Types of mouth cancer
Nine out of 10 mouth cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. They develop in the flat, skin-like cells that cover the inside of your mouth. Other, rarer types of mouth cancer include:

salivary gland cancer, which starts in your salivary gland cells
lymphoma, which starts in lymph tissue near the base of your tongue and tonsils
melanoma, which starts in skin pigment cells around your mouth or on your lips
Symptoms of mouth cancer

The two most common symptoms of mouth cancer are:

an ulcer in your mouth or on your lip that won't heal
constant discomfort or pain in your mouth
Other symptoms can include:

red or white patches in your mouth
a lump on your lip, tongue or in your neck
bad breath
unexplained bleeding in your mouth
numbness in your mouth
loose teeth
problems chewing or swallowing, difficulty moving your jaw or a feeling that something is caught in your throat
changes to your voice – it may sound husky or quieter or you may slur your words
weight loss because of problems swallowing
These symptoms aren't always caused by mouth cancer but if you have any of them, see your GP or dentist.

Causes of mouth cancer

The exact reasons why you may develop mouth cancer aren't fully understood at present. However, you may be more likely to develop mouth cancer if you:

smoke any form of tobacco – cigarettes, cigars and pipes, as well as bidis or hand-rolled cigarettes that contain cannabis
chew tobacco, such as betel quid, gutkha and paan
drink excessive alcohol, especially at the same time as smoking or chewing tobacco
have already had certain types of cancer, such as skin cancer
regularly expose yourself to the sun or ultraviolet (UV) light as this increases the risk of lip cancer
have a weakened immune system – people who have HIV/AIDS, or who are taking medicines that suppress the immune system, are more likely to develop mouth cancer
eat a poor diet that doesn’t include many vitamins and minerals
have the human papilloma virus (HPV) as this causes some cancers of the oropharynx (part of the throat at the back of your mouth), including the soft palate, the base of your tongue, and your tonsils
Diagnosis of mouth cancer

The earlier mouth cancer is diagnosed, the better your chances of recovery. Your dentist may spot mouth cancer in its early stages during a routine check-up, so it's important to visit your dentist regularly.

Your GP or dentist will ask about your symptoms and examine you. He or she may also ask you about your medical history. Your GP or dentist will feel your neck and face to check for swellings and may refer you to a head and neck specialist for further tests.

You may have the following tests to confirm a diagnosis of mouth cancer.

Mouth and throat examination – your doctor may use a special instrument called a flexible laryngoscope to look inside your mouth and throat.
Biopsy – a biopsy is a small sample of tissue. This will be sent to a laboratory for testing to determine the type of cells and if they are benign (not cancerous) or cancerous.
If you're found to have cancer, you may need to have other tests to assess if the cancer has spread. The process of finding out the stage of a cancer is called staging. The tests may include the following.

X-rays of your upper and lower jaw (Panorex X-ray), or your chest, or both.
Scans, which may include ultrasound, MRI or CT. These will check your muscles, organs and tissues in your face, throat and chest.
Further biopsies of nearby lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are glands throughout the body that are part of the immune system.
Endoscopy. This allows a doctor to look at the inside of the body. The test is done using a narrow, flexible, tube-like telescopic camera called an endoscope.
A barium swallow and meal test, which involves swallowing a drink containing barium (a substance which shows up on X-rays). X-ray images will show up any unusual growths in your digestive system down to your stomach.
Treatment of mouth cancer

Your treatment will depend on the type of mouth cancer you have, where it is and how far it has spread. Your doctor will discuss your treatment options with you. There are three main treatments for mouth cancer. These are surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

Surgery
Surgery (including the use of lasers) involves removing the affected tissue. Your surgeon may also need to remove the lymph nodes in your neck or other affected tissues in your mouth and neck. How much surgery you need will depend on how much tissue is affected.

If you have surgery to remove a small tumour in your mouth, it may not cause you any lasting problems but if you have a larger tumour, your surgeon may need to remove part of your palate, tongue, or jaw. This surgery may change your ability to chew, swallow, or talk and your face may look different after surgery. You may need to have reconstructive or plastic surgery to rebuild the bones or tissues in your mouth.

Surgery is sometimes followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy treatment to make sure all the cancer cells are destroyed.

Non-surgical treatments

Non-surgical treatments include the following.

Radiotherapy

Radiotherapy uses radiation to destroy cancer cells. A beam of radiation is targeted on the cancerous cells, which shrinks the tumour. Much less commonly, a source of radioactivity will be implanted in your mouth. This is called brachytherapy. Radiotherapy can now be targeted to the area that needs treating to prevent damaging normal tissues close by.

Chemotherapy 

Chemotherapy uses medicines to destroy cancer cells. They are usually injected into a vein but are sometimes available as tablets. Chemotherapy is often used in combination with radiotherapy. Radiotherapy targets the area of cancer and chemotherapy may kill cancer cells that have moved elsewhere in your body.

Biological therapy

Biological therapy changes the activity of cancer cells. Cetuximab is a type of biological therapy that is known as a monoclonal antibody. Cetuximab blocks areas on the surface of cancer cells that can trigger growth. You may have it along with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, if you have advanced squamous mouth or oropharyngeal cancer.

Prevention of mouth cancer

Making some simple lifestyle changes can reduce your risk of mouth cancer. These include the following.

Visit your dentist for regular check-ups.
Look for any changes in your mouth such as sore patches or ulcers that don't heal and report them to your GP.
Don't smoke.
Don't chew tobacco.
Drink only in moderation. The Department of Health guidelines recommend that men drink no more than three or four units a day and women drink no more than two or three units a day.
Eat a healthy diet with at least five portions of fruit and vegetables a day.
Protect your skin from sunlight and other UV exposure such as sunbeds. Wear sunblock on your lips, stay out of the sun between 11am and 3pm and wear a wide-brimmed hat to protect your face.
What Are The Symptoms Of Mouth Cancer
What Are The Symptoms Of Mouth Cancer
What Are The Symptoms Of Mouth Cancer
What Are The Symptoms Of Mouth Cancer
What Are The Symptoms Of Mouth Cancer.
What Are The Symptoms Of Mouth Cancer
What Are The Symptoms Of Mouth Cancer
What Are The Symptoms Of Mouth Cancer
What Are The Symptoms Of Mouth Cancer
What Are The Symptoms Of Mouth Cancer
What Are The Symptoms Of Mouth Cancer
What Are The Symptoms Of Mouth Cancer

Symptom Of Mouth Cancer

Source(google.com.pk)
Symptom Of Mouth Cancer Biography
People may not notice the very early symptoms or signs of oral cancer. People with an oropharyngeal cancer may notice any of the following signs and symptoms:

A painless lump on the lip, in the mouth, or in the throat
A sore on the lip or inside the mouth that does not heal
A painless white or red patch on the gums, tongue, or lining of the mouth
Unexplained pain, bleeding, or numbness inside the mouth
A sore throat that does not go away
Pain or difficulty with chewing or swallowing
Swelling of the jaw
Hoarseness or other change in the voice
Pain in the ear

These symptoms are not necessarily signs of cancer. Mouth sores and other symptoms may be caused by many other less serious conditions.
Symptom Of Mouth Cancer
Symptom Of Mouth Cancer
Symptom Of Mouth Cancer
Symptom Of Mouth Cancer
Symptom Of Mouth Cancer
Symptom Of Mouth Cancer
Symptom Of Mouth Cancer
Symptom Of Mouth Cancer
Symptom Of Mouth Cancer
Symptom Of Mouth Cancer
Symptom Of Mouth Cancer
Symptom Of Mouth Cancer
Symptom Of Mouth Cancer

Symptoms Mouth Cancer

Sourc(google.com.pk)
Symptoms Mouth Cancer  Biography
Tobacco use is by far the most common risk factor for cancers of the mouth and throat. Both smoking and "smokeless" tobacco (snuff and chewing tobacco) increase the risk of developing cancer in the mouth or throat.

All forms of smoking are linked to these cancers, including cigarettes, cigars, and pipes. Tobacco smoke can cause cancer anywhere in the mouth and throat as well as in the lungs, the bladder, and many other organs in the body. Pipe smoking is particularly linked with lesions of the lips, where the pipe comes in direct contact with the tissue.

Smokeless or chewing tobacco is linked with cancers of the cheeks, gums, and inner surface of the lips. Cancers caused by smokeless tobacco use often begin as leukoplakia or erythroplakia.
Other risk factors for mouth and throat cancer include the following:

Alcohol use: At least three quarters of people who have a mouth and throat cancer consume alcohol frequently. People who drink alcohol frequently are six times more likely to develop one of these cancers. People who both drink alcohol and smoke often have a much higher risk than people who use only tobacco alone.
Sun exposure: Just as it increases the risk of skin cancers, ultraviolet radiation from the sun can increase the risk of developing cancer of the lip. People who spend a lot of time in sunlight, such as those who work outdoors, are more likely to have cancer of the lip.

Chewing betel nut: This prevalent practice in India and other parts of South Asia has been found to result in mucosa carcinoma of the cheeks. Mucosa carcinoma accounts for less than 10% of oral cavity cancers in the United States but is the most common oral cavity cancer in India.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection: Several strains of HPV are associated with cancers of the cervix, vagina, vulva, and penis. Some types of HPVs are able to infect the tissues of the mouth and throat. Cancer at the base of the tongue, at the back of the throat, in the tonsils, or in the soft palate is associated with HPV infection.
These are risk factors that can be avoided in some cases. For example, one can choose to not smoke, thus lowering the risk of mouth and throat cancer. The following risk factors are outside of a person's control:

Age: The incidence of mouth and throat cancers increases with advancing age.
Sex: Mouth and throat cancer is twice as common in men as in women. This may be related to the fact that more men than women use tobacco and alcohol.

The relationship between these risk factors and an individual's risk is not well understood. Many people who have no risk factors develop mouth and throat cancer. Conversely, many people with several risk factors do not. In large groups of people, these factors are linked with higher incidence of oropharyngeal cancers.
Symptoms Mouth Cancer
Symptoms Mouth Cancer
Symptoms Mouth Cancer
Symptoms Mouth Cancer
Symptoms Mouth Cancer
Symptoms Mouth Cancer
Symptoms Mouth Cancer
Symptoms Mouth Cancer
Symptoms Mouth Cancer
Symptoms Mouth Cancer
Symptoms Mouth Cancer
Symptoms Mouth Cancer
Symptoms Mouth Cancer

Cancer Of The Mouth Symptoms

Source(google.com.pk)
Cancer Of The Mouth Symptoms Biography
The oral cavity (mouth) and the upper part of the throat (pharynx) have roles in many important functions, including breathing, talking, chewing, and swallowing. The mouth and upper throat are sometimes referred to as the oropharynx or oral cavity. The important structures of the mouth and upper throat include the following:

Lips
Inside lining of the cheeks (buccal mucosa)
Teeth
Gums
Tongue
Floor of the mouth
Back of the throat, including the tonsils (oropharynx)
Roof of the mouth (the bony front part [hard palate] and the softer rear part [soft palate])
Area behind the wisdom teeth
Salivary glands

Many different cell types make up these different structures. Cancer occurs when normal cells undergo a transformation whereby they grow and multiply without normal controls. Malignant tumors of the oral cavity can encroach on and invade neighboring tissues. They can also spread to remote sites in the body through the bloodstream or to lymph nodes via the lymph vessels. The process of invading and spreading to other organs is called metastasis.

Tumors in the mouth and throat include both benign and malignant types.

Benign tumors, although they may grow and penetrate below the surface layer of tissue, do not spread by metastasis to other parts of the body. Benign tumors of the oropharynx are not discussed in this article.
Premalignant conditions are cell changes that are not cancer but which may become cancer if not treated.

Dysplasia is another name for these precancerous cell changes.
Dysplasia can be detected only by taking a biopsy of the lesion.
Examining the dysplastic cells under a microscope indicates how severe the changes are and how likely the lesion is to become cancerous.

The dysplastic changes are usually described as mild, moderately severe, or severe.
The two most common kinds of premalignant lesions in the oropharynx are leukoplakia and erythroplakia.

Leukoplakia is a white or whitish area on the tongue or inside of the mouth. It can often be easily scraped off without bleeding and develops in response to chronic (long-term) irritation. Only about 5% of leukoplakias are cancerous at diagnosis or will become cancerous within 10 years if not treated.

Erythroplakia is a raised, red area. If scraped, it may bleed. Erythroplakia is generally more severe than leukoplakia and has a higher chance of becoming cancerous over time.

Mixed white and red areas can also occur and represent premalignant lesions of the oral cavity.
These are often detected by a dentist at a routine dental examination.
Several types of malignant cancers occur in the mouth and throat.

Squamous cell carcinoma is by far the most common type, accounting for more than 90% of all cancers. These cancers start in the squamous cells, which form the surface of much of the lining of the mouth and pharynx. They can invade deeper layers below the squamous layer.

Other less common cancers of the mouth and throat include tumors of the minor salivary glands and lymphoma.
Cancers of the mouth and throat do not always metastasize, but those that do usually spread first to the lymph nodes of the neck. From there, they may spread to more distant parts of the body.

Statistics about oral cancer reveal that over 39,000 new cases of oral cancer are diagnosed in the U.S. yearly, with about 7,900 people dying of these cancers each year. Approximately 1 out of 95 people will develop an oral cancer at some time in their lives.

Cancers of the mouth and throat occur in twice as many men as women.
These cancers can develop at any age but occur most frequently in people aged 45 years and older.

Incidence rates of mouth and throat cancers vary widely from country to country. These variations are due to differences in risk factor exposures.
Cancer Of The Mouth Symptoms 
Cancer Of The Mouth Symptoms 
Cancer Of The Mouth Symptoms 
Cancer Of The Mouth Symptoms 
Cancer Of The Mouth Symptoms 
Cancer Of The Mouth Symptoms 
Cancer Of The Mouth Symptoms 
Cancer Of The Mouth Symptoms 
Cancer Of The Mouth Symptoms 
Cancer Of The Mouth Symptoms 
Cancer Of The Mouth Symptoms 
Cancer Of The Mouth Symptoms 
Cancer Of The Mouth Symptoms