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Tuesday, 7 May 2013

Cancer Symptom Sign Ribbon cells Horoscope Symbol Tattoos Research Zodiac Sign Ribbon Tattoos

Cancer Symptom Biography

 Source(google.com.pk)

In order to diagnose pancreatic cancer, physicians will request a complete physical exam as well as personal and family medical histories. The way in which the cancer presents itself will differ depending on whether the tumor is in the head or the tail of the pancreas. Tail tumors present with pain and weight loss while head tumors present with steatorrhea, weight loss, and jaundice. Doctors also look for recent onset of atypical diabetes mellitus, Trousseau's sign, and recent pancreatitis.
In general, when making a pancreatic cancer diagnosis, physicians pay special attention to common symptoms such as abdominal or back pain, weight loss, poor appetite, tiredness, irritability, digestive problems, gallbladder enlargement, blood clots (deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism), fatty tissue abnormalities, diabetes, swelling of lymph nodes, diarrhea, steatorrhea, and jaundice.

It is also common for doctors to administer blood, urine, and stool tests. Blood tests can detect a chemical called carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as well as CA 19-9 - a chemical released into the blood by pancreatic cancer cells. Liver function tests check for bile duct blockage.

Several imaging techniques are employed in order to see if cancer exists and to find out how far it has spread. Common imaging tests include:
patient abdomen being scanned

    Ultrasound - to visualize tumor
    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) - thin tube with a camera and light on one end
    Abdominal computerized tomography (CT) scans - to visualize tumor
    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) - to x-ray the common bile duct
    Angiogram - to x-ray blood vessels
    Barium swallows to x-ray the upper gastrointestinal tract
    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - to visualize tumor
    Positron emission tomography (PET) scans - useful to detect if disease has spread

The only absolute way to make a cancer diagnosis is to remove a small sample of the tumor and look at it under the microscope in a procedure called a biopsy. A fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is the most commonly used method. A thin needle is inserted into the pancreas through the skin, and the pathologist uses CT scan or ultrasound images as a guide. Another type is the brush biopsy performed during ERCP to gather cells. A laparotomy is sometimes ordered to determine the stage, or extent, of the disease because it provides access to a large part of the abdominal cavity.
What Are The Stages Of Pancreatic Cancer?

After a diagnosis is made, doctors find out how far the cancer has spread to determine the stage of the cancer. The stage determines which choices will be available for treatment and informs prognoses. The standard pancreatic cancer staging method is called the TNM (Tumor - Node - Metastasis) system. T indicates the size and direct extent of the primary tumor, N indicates the degree to which the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes, and M indicates whether the cancer has metastasized to other organs in the body. A small tumor that has not spread to lymph nodes or distant organs may be staged as (T1, N0, M0), for example.

Group staging, from 0 to IV, for pancreatic cancer follows from TNM categories. Stage 0 is written as (Tis, N0, M0) where Tis stands for carcinoma in situ. This is when the tumor is confined to the top layers of pancreatic duct cells and has not invaded deeper tissues nor spread outside of the pancreas. Stage IV is written as (Any T, Any N, M1) and describes cancer that has spread to distant sites throughout the body.

Physicians also use a simpler staging system that classifies tumors based on the likelihood that they can be surgically removed. Resectable cancers are isolated to the pancreas and can be entirely removed. Locally advanced (unresectable) tumors have not spread to distant organs but cannot be completely removed surgically. Metastatic tumors have spread to distant organs, and surgery would only be used to relieve pain or unblock duc

Cancer Symptom Sign Ribbon cells Horoscope Symbol Tattoos Research Zodiac Sign Ribbon Tattoos

Cancer Symptom Sign Ribbon cells Horoscope Symbol Tattoos Research Zodiac Sign Ribbon Tattoos

Cancer Symptom Sign Ribbon cells Horoscope Symbol Tattoos Research Zodiac Sign Ribbon Tattoos

Cancer Symptom Sign Ribbon cells Horoscope Symbol Tattoos Research Zodiac Sign Ribbon Tattoos

Cancer Symptom Sign Ribbon cells Horoscope Symbol Tattoos Research Zodiac Sign Ribbon Tattoos

Cancer Symptom Sign Ribbon cells Horoscope Symbol Tattoos Research Zodiac Sign Ribbon Tattoos

Cancer Symptom Sign Ribbon cells Horoscope Symbol Tattoos Research Zodiac Sign Ribbon Tattoos

Cancer Symptom Sign Ribbon cells Horoscope Symbol Tattoos Research Zodiac Sign Ribbon Tattoos

Cancer Symptom Sign Ribbon cells Horoscope Symbol Tattoos Research Zodiac Sign Ribbon Tattoos

Cancer Symptom Sign Ribbon cells Horoscope Symbol Tattoos Research Zodiac Sign Ribbon Tattoos

Cancer Symptom Sign Ribbon cells Horoscope Symbol Tattoos Research Zodiac Sign Ribbon Tattoos

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